Medicine was not always the kind we used to see her. A couple of hundred years ago, pneumonia or appendicitis was a death sentence, and the surgeons had no idea that the hands before surgery should be washed, and didn't pay attention to the heart-rending cries of the patients (after anaesthesia did not yet exist). But were the geniuses who, despite the ridicule of colleagues, have made an incredible discovery.
tell you about the greatest medical breakthroughs that have saved millions of lives and changed the old view of the world.
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Before the invention of anesthesia all operations were either terribly painful, or very fast. Russian surgeon Nikolai Pirogov performed the amputation in 3 minutes, otherwise the patients die of shock.
The lack of adequate pain management hindered the development of surgery — abdominal operations, and the speech could not be. Of course, doctors have been experimenting with infusions of poppy, Mandrake, and even put tobacco enemas. However, these funds could not completely get rid of the pain, and they were dangerous to the health of the patient.
Everything changed when the American dentist William Morton decided to use the anesthesia diethyl ether. And pushed Morton to the discovery of the banal lack of money: because of the fear of painful treatments patients chose to bypass the dentist side. The doctor responsible approach to the development of the method of treatment: put the animal experiments, treated close friends, make sure of the safety of the drug, submitted it to the General public.
October 16, 1846, is considered the official birthday of anaesthesia. With a huge crowd of people, Morton was carried out surgery to remove a jaw tumor. During the procedure, the patient slept, and it was a triumph of the doctor.
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The surgeons until the XIX century, even in a head did not come that it would be nice to wash your hands before surgery or delivering babies. Disinfection? Never heard of it. The use of one surgical instrument for ten patients was in the order of things. As a result, most operations ended in suppuration and gangrene, and birthing — blood poisoning. Mortality after the intervention of the surgeons was huge.
Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis was the first who forced his subordinates to wash their hands in dezinfeciruyuhimi the bleach solution. Innovation Semmelweis reduced the mortality rate among mothers 7 times. But the doctor's discovery was not appreciated in the scientific community, his ideas were considered crazy. Semmelweis died in a mental hospital, where his determined colleagues.
Later Englishman Joseph Lister proved the need for sterilization and instrument processing fields wounds. Discoveries of Semmelweis and Lister have saved millions of lives.
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Before the discovery of x-rays the surgeons had to re-breaking an improperly healed limbs of patients. Such operations were painful and often led to full recovery.
Changed all of the accidental discovery of Wilhelm Roentgen. The physicist conducted experiments with cathode tubes and noticed that in the place of the collision of cathode rays coming unknown radiation. It turned out that this radiation (x-rays called x-rays) can pass through some opaque materials. The first x-rays was made by the physicist in his study: the image of the hand doctor Callicera, other x-rays, in an instant spread all over the world. This event led the scientific community to the excitement, and ordinary people in the horror to such a spectacle, people were used to long.
X-ray appealed the representatives of industrial firms with a request to sell the invention, but the scientist didn't even patented. It is because of the availability of technology began the rapid development of related industries — Oncology, pulmonology, radiology and many others.
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A world without antibiotics was terribly dangerous — any infection was life-threatening. Tuberculosis, whooping cough, or pneumonia was equivalent to a death sentence.
The idea that some germs can be fought with other, existed in the nineteenth century. In fact, however, the first antibiotic discovered by Scottish researcher Alexander Fleming in 1928. Despite the fact that Fleming was known as a brilliant scientist, a major discovery of his life, he did through the mess in his laboratory. Forgotten them in a Petri dish with Staphylococcus settled fungi, which destroy pathogenic bacteria.
For his discovery, Alexander Fleming won the Nobel prize, and humanity was able to successfully combat tuberculosis, pneumonia, malaria, and other diseases that were previously incurable.
Bodies that affects the diabetes.
Today 450 million people worldwide live with diabetes. Before the invention of insulin a full life for patients with diabetes was not possible: complications of the disease lead to loss of vision, kidney failure and other terrible consequences.
The beginning of the twentieth century, scientists knew that the cause of diabetes is lack of pancreatic hormone — insulin. But the drug, which could compensate for the complete or partial absence of the hormone to create one failed. And only in 1922 the canadian physiologist Frederick Banting from the pancreas of animals have identified a substance, which is called the "iletin". International name insulin was given the drug later.
The first person who received an injection of insulin was a 14-year-old. After the first injection of the drug, his health greatly improved. For his discovery, Dr. Banting was awarded the Nobel prize and became the youngest person to receive the award. At the time of the award he was only 32 years old.
This invention was a true revolution in endocrinology. Insulin is still the only affordable and safe drug for the relief of diabetes.
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Cancer treatment at all times was very dangerous and often ended with a victory over the disease. A malignant tumor is very difficult to defeat because the cancer cells are constantly mutating and generate new clones.
Sidney Farber called the father of modern chemotherapy. The son of a Polish immigrant Farber lived very poorly, and Harvard University made his living by playing the violin. From a physician's assistant to a leading researcher of cancer in children — such a professional way doctor. Dr. Farber first tested and patented drug to combat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.
All chemotherapy drugs is the most powerful cell poisons. For example, the drug to combat cancer mechlorethamine known as mustard gas. Initially it was used as a chemical weapon, and later opened the antitumor effect of toxic compounds.
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XIX from the smallpox epidemic a year in Europe killed millions of people, and the survivors often became disabled. Smallpox did not spare anyone — the monarchs and ordinary people became its victims, and the mortality rate reached 80 %.
The idea that people can be infect, to then it not ill, was born in the tenth century. Chinese healers were inoculated healthy people with fluid from vesicles of patients with smallpox. However, such methods were very dangerous — the percentage of death was high.
The first person who could devise a valid and relatively safe method of vaccination was a country doctor Edward Jenner. He noticed that milkmaids who had had cow pox, remain immune to human smallpox, and concluded that vaccination could have saved many lives. Edward Jenner was right. Despite the opposition of the Church and lack of understanding of the bulk of doctors in the first years after the discovery of a new method of vaccination vaccination has made more than 100 thousand people.
Jenner's method was the "source of inspiration" for the creation of vaccines for rabies, tetanus and anthrax. According to who, vaccination against polio, tetanus, whooping cough and measles every year saves lives of 3 million children around the world.
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The fact that certain foods help to treat the disease, was known to the ancient Egyptians. These guys knew exactly what from night blindness helps chicken liver, but didn't know why. People guess that the deficiency of wholesome food may lead to disease — scurvy, rickets, beriberi. But the mechanisms of their appearance remained unknown.
In the XVIII century, the entire scientific community laughed at a Scottish doctor named James Lind. Seest case — this strange man offered to treat sailors suffering from scurvy with lemons and limes. However, time has shown that Lind was right: scurvy arose from a severe deficiency of vitamin C.
Dozens of scientists from different countries struggled with the mystery of nutrients, but the Nobel prize went to English doctor Frederick Hopkins and Christiaan eijkman Dutch. They were able to finally explain to mankind what vitamins. The discovery of vitamins helped to prevent and cure many diseases. Some of these people today have not even heard of.
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Scientists from the University of Massachusetts implanted in the brains of mice false memories. Neuroscientists have entered bogus information in those areas of the brain that are responsible for information about the past, and just replaced the good memories for bad.
A few years ago it was considered unbelievable. About the same as painless operation in the XIX century. Today, however, operations under anesthesia are considered routine. Maybe someday transplant the memory will become a reality. And our lives will be much steeper than Hollywood movies.
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