Twenty-ninth of September is world heart day. It was initiated in 1999 by the world heart Federation, the world health organization and UNESCO. The planetary scale of this relatively young holiday is quite understandable: there are organs without which a person can live, but not without a heart. Meanwhile, it is cardiovascular disease-one of the main causes of death in almost all countries, regardless of age.
During the life of the heart on average pumps almost six million liters of blood. This is about the same as the kitchen faucet, included in the entire head, passes water for 45 years. Such a volume would be enough to fill several hundred tanks of a freight train.
In the human embryo, the heart begins to beat in the third to fourth week after conception. In the fifth or sixth week of heartbeat can be heard on ultrasound. It is declining faster than that of an adult — 105-120 beats per minute.
The fetus reacts to the mother's condition — if she is nervous, his heartbeat quickens. And if you add up all the pauses between the contractions of the heart for the entire human life, it turns out that it does not beat for almost 20 years! In addition, the heart stops briefly during certain physiological processes — for example, when we sneeze.
The heart can beat outside the body. Yes, it is the only muscle in our body whose contractions are not regulated by the brain. That is why the most complicated cardiac surgery became possible. It's all about electrical impulses — they stimulate the heartbeat. As long as there is enough energy and oxygen, it will be reduced.
Heart can be " customized»
A healthy woman's heart beats a little faster than a man's. Men — 70 beats per minute, women-about 78. However, in couples living together, heart rhythms and breathing become similar — such a connection appears on the physiological level, especially if the relationship is close. But even if people just enthusiastically do something together, their hearts are "tuned" to each other. For example, when a choir sings, its members synchronized heartbeat.
Surgeons wanted to learn how to transplant a heart a century and a half ago. But the first such a phenomenal operation did Christian Barnard, and it happened in South Africa, in Cape town, December 3, 1967. The patient is a businessman Louis Washkansky, and his posthumous donor, 19-year-old woman who died in an accident. Alas, 18 days later, Louis died, but the cause was not a heart disease, and bilateral pneumonia. Today, after transplantation, people live for 10, 20 or more years. The world record of life with a "foreign" heart is 32 years, and, it should be noted, in the latter case, the patient did not die from problems associated with the operation.
Science still has no clear explanation of this fact, but people who survived a heart transplant, often radically changing tastes, habits and preferences. In particular, in one of the magazines described the case of an American woman named Debbie, who was a staunch teetotaller, couldn't stand fast food restaurants and only listened to the classics. She went to the heart of 18-year-old black boy who liked beer and chicken, fried in batter, and only listened to rap. Opening his eyes after anesthesia, Debbie realized that he wants a beer, she left the hospital she first went to McDonald's, although earlier on the spirit couldn't stand him. Is it any wonder that she fell out of love with classical music and started listening to rap?
Scientists have found that most of the heart attacks occur in the morning, from 8 to 9 hours. The sad "leader" in the number of heart attacks among all days of the week — Monday, no wonder he was nicknamed the hard day. And the most problematic periods of the year are July-August, when the hottest weather, as well as new year holidays.
Fluid flows from more pressure to less, but it is in the human body, this law is always violated. In this case, when we are at rest, the blood overcomes the path from the heart to the lungs and back in just 6 seconds, for 8 there is an exchange between the heart and the brain, for 16 the blood reaches the tips of our fingers — and returns back.
Through a catheter inserted into the vein of his own hand, the German surgeon Werner Forssman examined the inside of his heart. This procedure was carried out in 1929, and at that time it was a breakthrough! So there was a cardiac sensing, which today has become a routine, albeit invasive diagnostic procedure. Nowadays, such examinations are performed everywhere, and the patient is always conscious and does not experience any pain. Most often on the same day he goes home.
The only part of the human body in which there is no blood supply — the cornea. And this fact became known to scientists relatively recently. If we talk about the total volume of blood pumped by the heart, 15-20% of it goes to the brain, and most of all — up to 22% — in the kidneys. In the heart, which, incidentally, weighs from 250 to 330 grams, there is only 5%.
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