"New wave" - so in the cinema called unprecedented author's films, characterized by a range of ideas, style, directing techniques. We talk about the four most famous and resonant "waves" in the history of cinema.
French Director françois Truffaut in 1969
"Wave" swept the country in the middle of the last century, so much so that the British officials sounded the alarm. Replaced the triumphant movie of the bourgeoisie came the "angry young men". Their characters come from the working class. Their themes — a riot, a storm of protest. They wanted change.
It all started with the fact that in the 1950s the country was hit by economic crisis. The studios were actively closed, the films were not produced, the tickets to the cinemas were much more expensive, and the commercial products that were shown on the screens were passable.
Then documentary filmmakers Tony Richardson, John Fletcher and guy Brenton came to the forefront of cultural life in England. They organized group "Free movies" (Free cinema). The films were made exclusively with the authors ' money, although they received minimal support from the British film Institute. Thus, the group produces almanac, which became a kind of Manifesto " angry "in the documentary — "Look at England". To shoot it, the Directors four years watching the ordinary British, their lives.
A little later, Tony Richardson will make a film based on the play of the theatrical representative of the "angry" John Osborne called "Look back in anger."
The story of a guy with a cool temperament, a love triangle and difficult moral lessons that life presents to the heroes of the tape, has become a cult not only in England but also abroad. Later, Richardson will put the picture "Taste of honey" about the difficult life of a girl desperately looking for love and support, and, by the way, also on the play, but already another playwright — Sheila Delaney.
Another program film "British new wave" — "The way up" by Jack Clayton. It is this film, which openly raises the topic of sex, and the main character — the obstinate representative of the working class, set the bar such tapes as "Saturday night, Sunday morning" Karel Reisha and "such is the sports life" Lindsay Anderson.
British filmmakers sought to reflect the diversity of the inner life of their characters for the external grayness and routine. The characters of their films demonstrate both violence and the ability to feel pain and compassion at the same time.
Many people have heard about the French "new wave". But how many names related to this trend, you can remember? Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut... who else?
Everything in order. The surge in cinematic life in France was a direct consequence of the rejection of the established, conformist style of shooting and storytelling. Filmmakers abandoned the script in the usual sense, there was improvisation.
Certainly, Francois Truffaut — the author of cult films "400 blows", "the Man who loved women, "the American night" became the founder of fight — the list can be continued long. It is he who publishes his ideas about authorship, the supremacy of the Director, not the producer, in the cult magazine of his friend, film critic Andre Bazin "cinematic notes" (Cahiers du Cinéma). Truffaut urged his contemporaries to pay attention to American films of category "B" as the opposite of sluggish and "quality" French products.
To Truffaut joined Jean-Luc Godard, also published in The "cinematic notes" their views on the new movie. Thus, the young master already believed that the installation animates "dead" footage. Remember his paintings: "in the last breath", "Live your life", "a Woman is a woman", "a Gang of outsiders", "Crazy Piero" — all of them became immortal masterpieces, glorified youth, energy, fearlessness and, of course, love.
It is said that the cinema is not a woman's business, but Agnes ward, who is also ranked as a French "new wave", proves the opposite: "Pointe-Kurt" about the love and life of a young couple and "Cleo from 5 to 7" about a young singer waiting for the results of analyzes, included in the list of masterpieces of world cinema.
You should pay attention to the works of Claude Chabrol, Eric Rohmer and Jacques Rivette. They were inspired by the work of their predecessors and contemporaries, such as Alfred tchcock and the author of the legendary westerns John Ford. Lightness, a sense of genuine freedom, sharp suspense of the French "wave" films will not let the viewer get bored.
In the mid-20th century, Hollywood's Studio system cracked: producers were still trying to influence young filmmakers, but it was getting weaker. And after the abolition in 1967 of the "Hays code" of the Studio system and the dictatorship of the producers is extinguished.
So there is an American "new wave". Its leaders are Francis Ford Coppola, Stanley Kubrick, Martin Scorsese and Robert Altman. Young people were inspired by the achievements of the French, their looseness and innovation. And Francis Ford Coppola admitted that he decided to become a filmmaker under the influence of Sergei Eisenstein's film "October (ten days that shook the world)", filmed in 1927.
Despite the fact that Coppola became famous thanks to the trilogy "the Godfather", he began with a lyrical and subtle drama" rain People " about finding yourself and human alienation.
Martin Scorsese to "Taxi driver" and "the Departed" took the melodramatic film "Alice doesn't live here anymore", and Stanley Kubrick included in the Guinness Book of world records with the film "the Shining" for the most number of takes in the scene with Shelly Duvall, has created a military-historical film "Paths of glory" about the First world war.
Wide acclaim for Romanian cinema came in the mid-2000s, after the worldwide success of the two paintings — "the death of Mr. Lazarescu" Christie Puju and the Cannes triumph "4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days" Christian Mungiu. Since then, the whole world is talking about talented Directors from Eastern Europe.
Quickly formed the formation of the Romanian cinema is associated with the rethinking of the historical experience of the country, and filmmakers often turn to the history of Romania, concentrating on the period of rule of the Communist party under the leadership of Nicolae Ceausescu. Thus, in 2009, the film almanac was created, which United the short films of the best Directors of Romania - "Tales of the Golden age". With some pain, but with a kindly irony, the film tells about the customs of the Romanians and the peculiarities of their mentality, which was formed under the Communist regime. Everything changed overnight, but people stayed the same.
Christi Puiu, Corneliu Porumboiu, Calin Peter Netzer society put a disappointing diagnosis — in their country there is alienation and indifference, people are afraid and left alone and closed. The most striking film, covering all these topics — "the Death of Mr. Lazarescu" Christy Puy. Lazarescu would be able to survive if "saving" his people were different? And maybe it's not the people a foothold in their system? Look for yourself, and you will definitely find the answers to these questions.
Photo: Santi Visalli / Contributor / Getty Images