Human life in the 21st century, despite some disorders in political and social spheres, quite to comfortable. Yes, doesn't do without wars and the conflicts and, in some countries poverty reigns and, corruption and infringement of the rights remain the most current problems at the state level. But in comparison with the Middle Ages, we are at civilization top.
To take, for example, medicine. Of course, presently there are problems in health sector, but doctors have ceased to cut cherepushka at any successful case or to bleed. Yes, earlier many any horrors occurred behind walls of hospitals. Huge enemas and treatment of a cataract needles — only part of them.
Today we will tell you about 10 most terrible procedures to which medieval doctors resorted. Just seeing their tools blood runs cold in veins …
Enemas from boar bile
In the Middle Ages of an enema looked awful much more more, than presently. They were called by klistiram. It were long metal tubes with a cup on the end. Just in her medicine was poured, and the tube went to back pass of the patient. Further liquid was entered into a thick gut by means of the piston. Feelings not from pleasant, but there is more to come. Presently for enemas warm soap water is used, and in the Middle Ages soup from boar bile was relevant for these affairs.
Urine was used in quality antiseptics
During a Middle Ages era some doctors who were admirers of experimental medicine used urine in quality antiseptics. For example, Thomas Vaykeri, the personal surgeon of Henry VIII, recommended to wash out urine all fighting wounds, and the doctor George Thomson recommended to use urine as plague medicine. Even bottled urine under the name "Urine Extract" was on sale.
Eye surgery by means of a needle
It dread to think, but earlier surgeons deleted a cataract by means of a thick needle. During the procedure her pushed a cornea to a back part of an eye. Gradually this operation has been improved, and instead of a needle began to use the metal syringe which was inserted through a skler and "exhausted" a cataract.
Treatment of hemorrhoids the heated iron
Hemorrhoids were not the most pleasant sore in the Middle Ages, and it is connected not only with pain, but also with the principles of his treatment. Once was considered that if the person didn't pray to a sacred Fiacre (to the defender against hemorrhoids), then he will suffer from hemorrhoids. Unfortunate sent to monks who cauterized to them an anus the heated iron. Also it was possible to sit on a stone of a sacred Fiacre — the well-known place where in the seventh century the Irish monk has wonderfully recovered from hemorrhoids.
Anesthesia existed even during the medieval period so it isn't necessary to think that every second patient of the surgeon suffered improbable torments on the operating table. Doctors of different cultures often shared the notes and new methods, the medicine progressed. But one problem didn't lose the relevance. Because doctors had no sufficient level of knowledge of chemicals, many disinfectants were far from an ideal. As a result — patients died not of painful shock or loss of blood, and of the infection which has got to wounds.
Medieval anesthetics were far from modern standards. 100-150 years ago as them collecting herbs mixed up with wine was used. The belladonna was the most widespread of these grass anesthetics. Also the most various ingredients — from harmless salad and vinegar to a deadly boligolov and opium met.
Trepanation in the Middle Ages very many diseases treated. Doctors have been sure that the hole drilled in a skull it is possible to save the patient from migraine, epilepsy, mental disorders and intra cranial pressure. Only present how many people died after this procedure, considering lack of sterile conditions and necessary medical knowledge!
Operations in the battlefield
The field surgery was much worse than traditional. It was necessary to treat soldiers on the run, sometimes thinking out new ways of disposal wounded from pain. For example, it was especially heavy to pull out to field doctors an arrow from a body without consequences. The matter is that tips were usually attached to a staff by wax, and for the only purpose: when the arrow was pulled out, her tip broke off a body of the victim from within. Later special nippers which pulled out a tip from a body have been invented. After that the wound was cauterized red-hot iron.
Astrologers were highly esteemed in medieval times. To scientists listened, and those gave advice how to increase productivity, forecast the weather and the future of people. Also doctors-astrologers could make the diagnosis by means of the special calendar of the star sky. They claimed that each part of a body is under the influence of the sun, the moon and planets and that each zodiac sign influences various parts of a body.
Doctors of the Middle Ages believed that "gumor" or liquids in a human body (blood, yellow bile, black bile and a phlegm) strongly influence health. According to the Greek and Roman doctors, the surplus or a lack of any of four gumor were also the reasons of many illnesses. For this reason bloodletting often was considered as way of treatment. Some people regularly bled themselves as considered that it will maintain their health.