Exactly 145 years ago, on May 20, 1873, the American businessman, the emigrant from the German Bavaria of Livay Strauss (the nee Loeb Strauss who has changed a name on American manners) and the emigrant from the Russian Empire Jacob Davies (before Jacob Jofis) have taken out the patent for trousers with metal rivets on pockets. And though I have made the first jeans of Strauss in the 1853rd, a "official" birthday of the trousers, most popular in the world, from a denim it is considered to be that day when the businessman has got permission of Bureau of patents and trademarks of the USA to production "working overalls without shoulder straps with pockets for a knife, money and coins". Business was at the height of a gold-rush, overalls were to the taste to gold prospectors, the rest — history.
Strictly speaking, "jeans" to America were brought by Christopher Columbus. s expedition of 1942 which has moved off in searches of a new way to India and as a result opened the New World, sailed from nimsky serge (serge de Nimes fabric).
Italy and France fight for the right to be called the homeland of jeans. Cotton serge of a diagonal interlacing from Genoa (from here the name gene) was known in Europe since the 16th century. However, manufactured fabric in France, near the town m (фр. de Nimes, has so appeared other name of denim — a denim), and Genoa delivered to the French only indigo dye. And still the name gene was assigned to a product, from Italian it has come to French where has turned into jean from where has removed to English. The word "jeans" has entered Russian in the second half of the 20th century, already as a tracing-paper from the American jeans.
On the prototype of trousers of Livaya created in 1853 there were no hip-pockets. Loops for a belt were also not provided in old model. The businessman has personally visited dozens of tent towns of gold prospectors to collect and specify wishes of the clients and to please them. One asked to remake trousers definitely, others have demanded to add a loop — without denim belt simply fell down. At last, were also such who thought exclusively of gold: that precious gold dust wasn't lost, on jeans there have to be tight pockets, they claimed. The ostrich considers all wishes when developing new models, and soon jeans take actually classical form: five pockets, rivets, a fastener on a button, double lines and blue color. Trousers become convenient and functional.
By the way, the issue of tightness of pockets has been resolved by Strauss's partner Jacob Davies. He has suggested to strengthen trousers rivets. It is curious that because of lack of funds Davies couldn't patent the invention, and he had to offer Strauss cooperation. The patent for a special way of fastening of pockets has cost partners 68 dollars.
In 1886 on Straussa jeans the leather label has appeared, subsequently this element was adopted practically by all producers. On the picture at Livaya horses who try to pull pair of trousers in different directions as though trying to break off them have been represented, but jeans keep. So the company emphasized quality of the production — Straussa jeans really didn't wear out long in comparison with other trousers.
The fashion for jeans has come only in the second half of the 1930th years. Before jeans were considered as clothes of miners and cowboys (just the last have removed rivets behind as they scratched saddles). Soon after end of a gold-rush in California jeans have found general popularity. There was it thanks to the Hollywood westerns of the 1930th — America has begun to go crazy on cowboys as to freedom symbol. By the way, in 1934 the first women's jeans have appeared. So the uniform of workers became an irreplaceable thing in clothes of each American and American.
And still to put on jeans in office or the university still was considered as inadmissible. Become casual clothes of denim only spent the 1950th when movies "Savage" with Marlon Brando and "The rebel without the reason" with James Dean in a leading role come out. After favourite heroes thousands of teenagers through the whole country take to the streets of the cities in jeans.
In the 1960th jeans become a part of image of rebels. In jeans these years it is possible to see representatives of the most different subcultures — from the harmless hippies embroidering flowers on trousers to the dangerous bikers hanging on belts heavy machine chains for greater intimidation. In addition, jeans began to paint not only in blue, but also in any other colors.
In the Soviet Union jeans have for the first time seen in 1957 at the International festival of youth and students in Moscow. Since then these trousers became a synonym of freedom, rebelliousness, independence and … some prosperity because only children of diplomats, seamen and pilots — in other words could afford the real, branded jeans, those who went abroad.
Today jeans — Basic Element of clothes. To buy trousers from a denim of the suitable size, any model and a coloring it is possible practically in each corner of the planet and for real kopeks.
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