Household waste became one of the main environmental problems in the world. People of Earth annually should spend more than 205 billion dollars for their collecting and utilization.
Annually in Russia 35–40 million tons of municipal solid waste are formed
95% are taken out on dumps
0,5% are processed in a different way
14% of plastic are processed today
First place on processing of aluminum is won by Brazil, she reuses 98,2% of aluminum jars. On the second place Japan — 82,5%
In Russia 1399 solid waste landfills, 7153 authorized dumps and 23 041 unauthorized dumps, 53 complexes on sorting of garbage, 41 waste burning plants and 243 complexes on processing of MSW work.
Depth — 1,5–2,5 m. Here all processes happen with the participation of oxygen: the remains of products decay, organic acids which dissolve metal garbage are formed. Aerobic bacteria (for example, a diphtheritic stick), rodents and insects breed.
Pollution from an aerobic zone of a dump: wind blows dust from a surface, and together with her — heavy metals, microorganisms, etc. Salts of heavy metals filter into deeper horizons.
There are most different processes of destruction as a result of which are formed toxic (carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatola, mercaptans) and combustible (hydrogen, methane) gases.
Pollution from an aerobic zone of a dump: landfill gas diffundirut in the top layers of a dump and comes to light. In a transitional zone he restores nitrates to toxic nitrogen oxides.
Ions of heavy metals get into ground and underground waters. The soil catches anaerobic bacteria — causative agents of tetanus, jaundice, tuberculosis.
If landfill gases light up in the depth of a garbage heap, then to reach such fire that to extinguish it, it is very difficult: too deeply can there is an ignition center. Because of a lack of oxygen at deep burning toxic polyphenols, dioxine, etc. are formed.
The general time which is required for decomposition of garbage on a dump — 80 years
2,13 billion tons of household waste are annually generated by mankind. If to ship all this garbage in trailers, the structure would wrap up the globe 24 times.
20% of fabric in the jeans Levi's collection released in 2013 consist of the processed plastic capacities. On 300 thousand models 3,6 million bottles and trays have left.
Household waste is slightly more than 8% of total number of the formed garbage. In the developed countries from 20 to 50% of household waste make the spoiled vegetables and fruit.
Aluminum jars — a little more than 0,2% of all household waste in the world (1,5 million tons). It is the most processed type of garbage. The bank can melt repeatedly. Costs of processing — only 5% of production of new aluminum capacity.
Plastic makes about 10% of the garbage made by us. About 50% of the thrown-out plastic are things of one-time application. From 93 to 236 thousand tons of plastic get to the World Ocean.
Glass can be for 100% the processed withdrawal. The processed glass is used for production of fiber glasses and filters on their basis and also for production of glass concrete from which walls pass light.
52% of the rubber tires sent for processing are used as fuel. The rest is crushed in a crumb which serves as filler for asphalt or a rubber covering of nurseries and sports grounds, a rubber tile. In the western countries process 48% of old tires.
Photos: GETTY IMAGES (X8)